Japanese family

Japanese Family Dateiverwendung

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Japanese family

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The eldest male is the head of the family who is responsible for the finances, the main decision making and other tasks as far as supporting the family is concerned.

The wife of the eldest male comes second in the family hierarchy of a Japanese family. She looks after the household and kitchen and heads the women of the house as far as decision making is concerned.

If her husband dies, then she may become dependent upon her son for providing money, if she herself is not working.

Next in the line of hierarchy comes the second eldest male who has takes care of his parents both financially and otherwise. He is responsible for the support of the Bokei members and also looks after the labor of the various family members in the administration of the household tasks.

In a typical Japanese families, many generations may live together and the son of the head of the family may support all of them.

The eldest daughter in law of the head of the family comes next in the line of succession in a typical Japanese family.

She looks after the administration of the household tasks and may have little say, especially if her mother in law is still alive and healthy.

In case the mother in law is not healthy, her main responsibilities may fall on the daughter in law. The children of the son and daughter in law come at the bottom of the hierarchy and may not be given any decision making powers and responsibilities.

Hierarchy Structure. Japanese Family Hierarchy was last modified: November 30th, by hierarchystructure. Dimeo Crime Family Hierarchy.

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Ancient Japanese Hierarchy. Venice Social Hierarchy. Ottoman Empire Social Hierarchy. Core Concepts. The Japanese feel a heightened sense of belonging and loyalty to their family as interdependence is emphasised in the collectivist society.

Furthermore, families also have a collective face in Japan. The typical Japanese household follows the nuclear family model; however, the extended family is usually kept in close proximity and is visited often.

The archetypal Japanese man works 6 days a week for long hours. It was once considered inappropriate for mothers to hold jobs. While, gender equality is now embraced, with women receiving equal educational and employment opportunities, men still dominate the workforce.

Within the family, the structure is generally patriarchal. The wife and children should facilitate his home-life needs as much as possible.

Most mothers devote their time to domestic duties and raising children. They have a lot of authority in their households over their children. They want their children to receive a good education and attend university.

Dating and Marriage. Dating practices in Japan are similar to those in Western cultures. When a couple does marry, the wedding can be very elaborate.

The bride and groom may have multiple outfits for photographs and the ceremony, varying between traditional kimonos and modern dress.

Guests may give typical wedding gifts or money to the couple and may even leave with a gift from the couple. Dates of Significance.

Japanese Family Video

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The permutations of potential characters and sounds can become enormous, as some very overloaded sounds may be produced by over distinct Kanji and some Kanji characters can stand for several dozen sounds.

This can and does make the collation , pronunciation , and romanization of a Japanese name a very difficult problem.

For this reason, business cards often include the pronunciation of the name as furigana , and forms and documents often include spaces to write the reading of the name in kana usually katakana.

A few Japanese names, particularly family names, include archaic versions of characters. Some names also feature very uncommon kanji , or even kanji which no longer exist in modern Japanese.

Japanese people who have such names are likely to compromise by substituting similar or simplified characters. This may be difficult for input of kanji in computers, as many kanji databases on computers only include common and regularly used kanji, and many archaic or mostly unused characters are not included.

An odd problem occurs when an elderly person forgets how to write their name in old Kanji that is no longer used. There are two common kanji for sai here.

Family names are sometimes written with periphrastic readings, called jukujikun , in which the written characters relate indirectly to the name as spoken.

Most Japanese people and agencies have adopted customs to deal with these issues. Address books , for instance, often contain furigana or ruby characters to clarify the pronunciation of the name.

Japanese nationals are also required to give a romanized name for their passport. The recent use of katakana in Japanese media when referring to Japanese celebrities who have gained international fame has started a fad among young socialites who attempt to invoke a cosmopolitan flair using katakana names as a badge of honor.

Not all names are complicated. Despite these difficulties, there are enough patterns and recurring names that most native Japanese will be able to read virtually all family names they encounter and the majority of personal names.

Some common interesting names with phonetic puns include Michio Kaku , which could mean "Draw a path" or "Lead the way", and Tsutomu Hata , which can mean "Work for the flag nation ", but the Kanji used to write them obscure these meanings.

Kanji names in Japan are governed by the Japanese Ministry of Justice's rules on kanji use in names. This is intended to ensure that names can be readily written and read by those literate in Japanese.

Though there are regulations on the naming of children, many archaic characters can still be found in adults' names, particularly those born prior to the Second World War.

Because the legal restrictions on use of such kanji cause inconvenience for those with such names and promote a proliferation of identical names, many recent changes have been made to increase rather than to reduce the number of kanji allowed for use in names.

The Sapporo High Court held that it was unlawful for the government to deny registration of a child's name because it contained a kanji character that was relatively common but not included in the official list of name characters compiled by the Ministry of Justice.

Subsequently, the Japanese government promulgated plans to increase the number of kanji "permitted" in names.

The use of a space in given names to separate first and middle names is not allowed in official documents, because technically, a space is not an allowed character.

However, spaces are sometimes used on business cards and in correspondence. Until the Meiji Restoration , Japanese common people people other than kuge and samurai had no surnames, and when necessary, used a substitute such as the name of their birthplace.

Merchants were named after their stores or brands for example, Denbei, the owner of Sagamiya, would be Sagamiya Denbei , and farmers were named after their fathers for example, Isuke, whose father was Genbei, would be "Isuke, son of Genbei".

After the Meiji Restoration, the government ordered all commoners to assume surnames in addition to their given names, as part of modernization and Westernization; this was specified in the Family Register Law of This explains, in part, the large number of surnames in Japan, as well as their great diversity of spelling and pronunciation, and makes tracing ancestry past a certain point extremely difficult in Japan.

Both practices have become less common, although many children still have names along these lines. Particularly, even though the symbol was "child", it meant "Lady" and was used only by upper-class females.

It would have been ridiculous to apply to middle-class or lower-class women. Pretty much the same names were used by all classes, but Hana-ko was upper class, while lesser women would be O-Hana-san, with honorific prefix as well as suffix.

The way in which a name is used in conversation depends on the circumstances and the speaker's relationships with the listener and the bearer of the name.

Typically the family name is used, with given names largely restricted to informal situations and cases where the speaker is older than, superior to, or very familiar with the named individual.

Using such words sometimes sounds disrespectful, and people will commonly address each other by name, title and honorific even in face-to-face conversations.

This faux pas , however, is readily excused for foreigners. Corresponding to any given name there are one or more hypocoristics , affectionate nicknames.

There are two types of stem. One consists of the full given name. The other type of stem is a modified stem derived from the full given name.

Hypocoristics with modified stems are more intimate than those based on the full given name. Hypocoristics with modified stems are derived by adding -chan to a stem consisting of an integral number, usually one but occasionally two, of feet , where a foot consists of two moras.

The segmental content is usually a left substring of that of the given name. However, in some cases it is obtained by other means, including the use of another reading of the kanji used to write the name.

The common Japanese practice of forming abbreviations by concatenating the first two morae of two words is sometimes applied to names usually those of celebrities.

Another slightly less common method is doubling one or two syllables of the person's name, such as the use of "MamiMami" for Mamiko Noto.

Many ethnic minorities, mostly Korean and Chinese, living in Japan adopt Japanese names. Nowadays, ethnic minorities, mostly Korean, who immigrated to Japan after WWII, take on Japanese names, sometimes called pass names , to ease communication and, more importantly, to avoid discrimination.

A few of them e. Sometimes, however, these ethnic Chinese and Koreans in Japan who choose to renounce Permanent Resident status to apply for Japanese citizenship have to change the characters in their names, because not all characters are legally recognized in Japan for naming purposes.

Japanese citizenship used to require adoption of a Japanese name. At the time, to gain Japanese citizenship, it was necessary to be adopted by a Japanese family in Hearn's case, it was his wife's family and take their name.

Individuals born overseas with Western given names and Japanese surnames are usually given a katakana name in Western order when referred to in Japanese.

However, sometimes Japanese parents decide to use Japanese order when mentioning the child's name in Japanese.

Also, Japanese parents tend to give their children a name in kanji, hiragana or katakana, particularly if it is a Japanese name.

Even individuals born in Japan, with a Japanese name, might be referred to using katakana, if they've established residency or a career overseas.

Japan's Christians traditionally have Christian names in addition to their native Japanese names. These Christian names are written using katakana, and are adapted to Japanese phonology from their Portuguese or Latin forms rather than being borrowed from English.

When children are born into the Imperial family, they receive a standard given name, as well as a special title. When a member of the Imperial family becomes a noble or a commoner, the emperor gives him or her a family name.

In medieval era, a family name " Minamoto " was often used. In modern era, princely family names are used.

Conversely, at the time that a noble or a commoner become a member of the Imperial family, such as through marriage, his or her family name is lost.

Before feudal times, Japanese clan names figured prominently in history: names with no fall into this category. The Japanese particle no can be translated of and is similar in usage to the aristocratic von in German although the association is in the opposite order in Japanese, and is not generally explicitly written in this style of name.

The Ryukyuan ruling class used names composed of Chinese characters, usually of one or two syllables and read in their own languages , like Korean and Chinese names.

Before the government formalized the naming system in , Japanese personal names were fluid. Changes in women's personal names were recorded less often, so they may not have changed their names as frequently as men did, but women who went into service as maids or entertainers frequently changed their names for the duration of their service.

During their employment, their temporary names were treated as their legal names. For example, a maid who was involved in legal dealings in Kyoto in signed legal documents as Sayo during one period of employment and as Mitsu during a later period of employment, but she signed as Iwa, presumably her birth name, when she was between jobs.

A Japanese person could go by one of several names, depending on the occasion. Artists and authors adopted a new name for each medium or form they worked in, whether or not they worked professionally.

Scholars also gave themselves scholarly names, often using the Chinese reading of the characters of their Japanese name. People who entered religious orders adopted religious names.

Death added to the number of a person's names. The personal names of Japanese emperors were also referred to as imina , even if the emperor was alive.

Prior to Emperor Jomei , the imina of the emperors were very long and not used. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign.

In the late shogunate period , many anti-government activists used several false names to hide their activities from the shogunate.

Actors and actresses in Western and Japanese dramatic forms, comedians , sumo wrestlers, Western-style professional wrestlers, and practitioners of traditional crafts often use professional names.

Many stage names of television and film actors and actresses are unremarkable, being just like ordinary Japanese personal names, but a few are tongue-in-cheek.

Many stand-up comics like the duo Beat Takeshi and Beat Kiyoshi choose a Western name for the act and use their own or stage given names.

Writers also tend to be clever about their names, for example Edogawa Ranpo which is designed to sound like " Edgar Allan Poe ". While a shikona can be the wrestler's own surname, most upper-division rikishi have a shikona different from their surname.

A typical shikona consists of two or three kanji, rarely just one or more than three. Often, part of the name comes from the wrestler's master, a place name such as the name of a province , a river , or a sea , the name of a weapon, an item identified with Japanese tradition like a koto or nishiki , or a term indicating superiority.

Often, waka indicates a wrestler whose father was also in sumo; in this case, the meaning is junior. Another notable example is the wrestler Sentoryu , which means fighting war dragon but is also homophonous with St.

Louis , his city of origin. Geisha and practitioners of traditional crafts and arts such as pottery , the tea ceremony , calligraphy , irezumi tattooing and ikebana flower arranging often take professional names.

In many cases, these come from the master under whom they studied. In English, the names of living or recently deceased Japanese are generally given surname last and without macrons.

As of , when using English and other Western languages Japanese people usually give their names in an order reversed from the traditional Japanese naming order, with the family name after the given name, instead of the given name after the family name.

When Japanese people attended events for the international community, such as balls, Japanese people used the western naming order.

For instance "Kazuyuki" may call himself "Kaz. Most foreign publications reverse the names of modern individuals, and most Japanese reverse their own names when creating materials for foreign consumption.

A Japanese executive or official usually has two business cards meishi. The first one is in Japanese and intended for fellow Japanese, using the Japanese order, and the second one is intended for foreigners, with the name in the Western order.

In Russian names may be written with family name first and given name second as well as the other way round and this applies to Japanese names as well.

In English many historical figures are still referred to with the family name first. John Power, author of "Japanese names," wrote "People who can speak and read Japanese have a strong resistance to switching Japanese names to the Western order.

Shizuka Saeki of Look Japan said, "This is not only a headache for writers and translators, it is also a source of confusion for readers. Riggs of the Society of Writers, Editors and Translators SWET , a professional writing organization headquartered in Tokyo , said, "When you publish a book about Japan, you are publishing it for people who want to know about Japan.

So they are interested in learning something new or something as it is supposed to be. Edith Terry, author of How Asia Got Rich , said that because Japanese people are "mastering" a "Western game" people have some pride and at the same time feel insecurity because the "game" is on "Western terms" rather than "Japanese terms.

Saeki said in that most Japanese people writing in English use western order, but that some figures began to promote the use of Japanese order as Japan became a major economic power in the 20th century.

The Japan Style Sheet , a guide for producing English language works about Japan written by SWET, advocates the use of the Japanese naming order as often as possible because the translators wanted to promote a consistency in naming order.

In , one publisher of English language textbooks in Japan used Japanese order, while in six of the eight publishers of English language textbooks in Japan use Japanese order.

In December the Council on the National Language of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture recommended that English language productions begin using the Japanese naming order because "it is in general desirable that personal names be presented and written in a way that preserves their unique forms, except for registries and other documents with specific standards.

In a January opinion poll from the Agency for Cultural Affairs on the preferred order of Japanese names in the English language, In the Japan Foundation decided that it would use the Japanese naming order in all of its publications.

A Japan Foundation publishing division spokesperson stated around that some SWET publications, including popular anglophone newspapers, continue to use western order.

As of the agency's style sheet recommends using a different naming order style depending upon the context. For instance it advocates using the western order in publications for readers who are not familiar with Japan, such as international conference papers.

The Chicago Manual of Style recommends indexing Japanese names according to the way the original text treats the name.

If the text uses the Western order, the Japanese name is reinverted and indexed by the family name with a comma. If the text uses Japanese order, the name is listed by the family name with no inversion and no comma.

He added that he was currently planning to issue an official request to the international media in that respect. In Chinese-speaking communities, Japanese names are pronounced according to the Chinese pronunciations of the characters.

Click on the file a few times and mimic the pronunciation before moving on. The third column repeats the pattern of the first, but for terms, you would use when talking about another person's family.

Some family words in Japanese are the same whether you are talking about your family or another person's family. These are general terms such as "family," "parents," and "siblings.

The second column lists the word in English. It can also be helpful to learn common Japanese expressions and questions related to the family.

The Japanese family-related phrase or question is provided in the first column. Click on the English transliteration of the phrase or question to bring up a sound file, just as in the previous sections.

The phrase or question is written in Japanese letters directly below the sound file. The English translation is listed in the second column.

Share Flipboard Email. Namiko Abe. Japanese Language Expert. Namiko Abe is a Japanese language teacher and translator, as well as a Japanese calligraphy expert.

She has been a freelance writer for nearly 20 years. Updated November 04,

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